Mackenzie, William Lyon


Mackenzie, William Lyon
(1795-1861)
   Mc His personality, Goldwin Smith on, 3; Dr. Harrison on, 4; W. J. Rattray on, 5, 6; first to enunciate principle of responsible government, 5; "a man ahead of his time," 6; his loyalty, 10; not an annexationist, 11; constitutional reformer, 12; parentage and ancestry, 34-36; defends himself from charges of disloyalty, 36-38; books read by him from 1806 to 1809, 40, 41; enters commerce, 41, 42; goes to Canada, 43; physical description of, 43; joins survey of Lachine Canal, 44; enters business with John Lesslie, 44; moves to Queenston, 44; marries, 45; declares war on Constitutional Act, 72; starts Colonial Advocate, 85; describes Upper Canada in 1820, 85-87; warns Canadians against union with United States, 87, 97; attitude on Clergy Reserves, 94; advocates provincial university, 95; reforms advocated by, which have come into effect, 97, 98; defends himself against disloyalty charge, 98-101; advocates federation of all North American colonies, 104, 105; moves to York, 106; pictures life of editors, 111; assists to bring about a party revolution, 112; mob destroys Colonial Advocate, 113; Macaulay offers damages, 115; personal attacks, 117-120; Macaulay's treatment of, 121-123; retaliates, 124, 125; answers Macaulay's pamphlet, 126; gets £625 damages, 129; refuses to prosecute criminally, 129; indicted for libel, 130; prosecution abandoned, 135; friendship of Robert Randal, 138; secures Randal's mission to England, 139; advocates responsible government, 146, 148; elected for York, 150; moves committal of Allan MacNab, 152; chairman of committee on post-office, 153; chairman of committee on privileges of House, 154; carries many motions and addresses, 154; introduces Thirty-two Resolutions, 155; opinions stated, 156; visits New York, 157; letter in National Gazette, 158; supports Robert Baldwin, 159; chairman of committee on banking, 161, 162; moves Libel Bill, 162, 163; letters to Sir John Colborne, 164; advocates responsible government, 166, 167; appeal to the people of Upper Canada, 168; re-elected for York, 169; banks oppose, 170; gets committee on state of representation, 171; committee reports, 175; he prints journals of House, 172; accused of printing libel on House, 175; arouses Upper Canada, 176, 177; visits Quebec, 178; first expulsion from Assembly, 181-201; libel complained of, 182, 183; his speech in his defence, 185; House refuses committee of inquiry, 201; petitions to the governor, 203; governor's answer, 203; backed up by the people, 204; again elected, 205; presented by constituents with gold medal, 205; second expulsion moved, 207; defends himself, 209; expelled a second time, 209; appeals to electors, 210-213; again elected, 215; attempt to assassinate, 219; Colonial Advocate office again attacked, 221; his mission to England, 221; estimate of Earl Grey, 221; his friendship with Joseph Hume, 222; introduces George Ryerson to Lord Goderich, 223; offered management of post-office department, 225; prepares statement for minister, 226; reply to Lord Goderich, 227; concessions obtained, 227-230; third expulsion, 232, 242; secures dismissal of Boulton and Hagerman, 232; scheme of post-office reform, 236; asks control of post-office revenue for Canadians, 236; obtains veto of Bank Charter Acts, 237; introduces Egerton Ryerson to colonial office, 238; publishes Sketches of Canada and the United States, 238; visits Scotland, 239; pays old creditors, 239; refuses banquets in Montreal and Quebec, 240; left to pay his own expenses, 240; unanimously re-elected for the third time, 242; not permitted to take oath, 242; new election ordered, 244; unanimously re-elected for the fourth time, 244; ejected from the House, 245; governor orders that he be allowed to take oath, 248; takes the oath, 251; again ejected from the House, 252; first mayor of Toronto, 255; designs city arms, 256; helps cholera patients, 256; takes cholera, 257; defeated for second mayoralty term, 257; forms Canadian Alliance Society, 258; retires from journalism, 259; estimate of, as a journalist, 260; again elected for York, 261; obtains select "Committee on Grievances," 263; obtains committee on Welland canal, 264; appointed director, 264; anticipates official report of canal committee, 265; sued for libel, 265; report of "Committee on Grievances," 270; urges responsible government, 279; visits Quebec, 287; meets Papineau, 288; opposes British restraint on trade, 292; anticipates Reciprocity Treaty, 292; defeated for the House, 308; claims the election was unfair, 309-314; insulted by Tory press, 317; his replies, 318; visits New York, 320; begins the Constitution, 320; "Declaration of Independence" of Upper Canada, 329, 330; meetings at Doel's brewery, 330-332; becomes agent of convention committee, 332; addresses nearly two hundred public meetings, 333-338; advises run on Bank of Upper Canada, 340; second meeting at Doel's brewery, 346; urges seizing arms and proclaiming provisional government, 349; drafts constitution, 355; organizes Rebellion, 359; warrant issued for his arrest, 360; tries to correct Rolph's mistake, 361; his advice disregarded, 362; sets out for the city, 363; again proposes to march on the city, 366; meets Head's flag of truce, 367, 368; urges Lount to march into the city, 371; skirmish at Montgomery's tavern, 379; ransom offered for, 380; account of his escape, 381 et seq.; addresses Buffalo audience, 411; meets Van Rensselaer, 412; Head seeks his extradition, 414; occupies Navy Island, 415; president of provisional government, 416; arrested at Buffalo, 424; threats of assassination, 428; abandons Van Rensselaer, 430; visits New York and Philadelphia, 433; begins Mackenzie's Gazette, 433; no connection with later frontier movements, 439, 444, 446; moves to Rochester, 448; forms association of Canadian refugees, 448; tried for breach of neutrality laws, 452; found guilty, 454; his sentence, 454; rigorous treatment in gaol, 455-458; released, 459; publishes Caroline Almanac, 459; his exchange attempted, 463; attempts to kidnap him, 464; publishes Volunteer, 467; moves to New York, 468; appointed to Mechanics' Institute, 468; publishes Lives of one Thousand Remarkable Irishmen, 469; publishes the Examiner, 470; appointed to New York customs house, 470; publishes Lives of Butler and Hoyt, in 1845, 471; and Life and Times of Martin Van Buren, 1846, 472; goes on Tribune, 472; Hume's letter to, 475; writes to Earl Grey, 479; amnestied, 480; visits Toronto, 481; brings family back, 486; elected for Haldimand, 486; his relations with George Brown, 487; his work in Parliament, 492; again elected for Haldimand, 497; resigns, 498; later parliamentary life, 500; love of his children, 504; Buchanan's proffered friendship, 504; Robert Hay's generosity, 505; offered office, 505; publishes Mackenzie's Message, 505; friends purchase homestead for, 505; financial difficulties, 506; declining health, 506; death of, Aug. 28, 1861, 507; funeral, 507, 508; one of the founders of St. Andrew's Church, 507; tributes of the press, 509-523. Md Leads Rebellion of 1837 in Upper Canada, 7; supports Brown in his quarrel with Macdonald, 81. R Views on relation of church and state in 1824, 45; his work for popular government, 66; his policy, 111; his "Seventh Report on Grievances," 112; opposes separate schools, 224. B His return to Canada, 36; burnt in effigy at Toronto, 36; defeats George Brown in Haldimand, 40, 44, 46; his resolution for abolition of Court of Chancery, 47. BL His parentage, 12; early days in Canada, 12, 13; in politics, 13-16, 26, 27, 33; aids Baldwin to secure seat in Legislature, 31; organizes revolutionary clubs, etc., 43; his proposed constitution for Upper Canada, 43; plans attack on Toronto by rebels, 43; described as a "mountebank," 120; his correspondence with Hume and Roebuck, 229; founds Canadian Alliance Association, 1834, 229; returns to Canada, 312, 318, 319; one of the leaders of the new Radicalism, 340-341; brings in motion to abolish Court of Chancery, 352. Sy Reform party falsely identified with his proceedings, 85, 138. E And the Rebellion of 1837, 17; leads Radical wing of Liberal party, in Upper Canada, 21, 22; and parliamentary government, 51; and MacNab, 75, 76; returns from his exile, 91; causes of his failure as a political leader, 91-93; proposes abolition of Court of Chancery, 103, 112; defeats George Brown, 113; attacks the government, 127; aftermath of the Rebellion, 190. P His correspondence with Papineau, 189. H Effect of his action in Upper Canada, upon popular party, in Nova Scotia, 49.
   Bib.: Works: Life and Times of Martin Van Buren; Life and Opinions of B. F. Butler; Sketches of Canada and the United States. For biog., see Morgan, Cel. Can.; Lindsey, Life and Times of W. L. McKenzie; Dent, Can. Por., Upper Canadian Rebellion, and Last Forty Years; King, Other Side of the Story; Read, Rebellion of 1837. See also Rebellion of 1837 (Upper Canada.)

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